Labelled Diagram of the Eye

Labelled diagram of the structure of the retina

Esotropia is a type of squint, which is also known as strabismus and as heterotropia. A squint is an abnormal alignment of the eyes.

Esotropia is a convergent squint, meaning that one or both eyes are turned inwards towards the nose.

There are several forms (classifications) of esotropia, including:

  • Infantile Esotropia.
  • Secondary Esotropia (Accomodative), i.e. associated with focussing and therefore may be assisted by correction using spectacles.
  • Secondary Esotropia (Non-accomodative), e.g. as a complication consequent to significant or total loss of sight on one eye.
  • Secondary Exotropia (Consecutive), e.g. post-surgery for exotropia (which is the form of squint in which the eye/s are directed abnormally outward).

Esotropia can usually be treated. Management depends on the particular case. Examination may involve an ophthalmoscopy (a non-surgical, non-invasive procedure).

For comparison:

Terms used to refer to the main forms of squint include:

  • Horizontal: Convergent Strabismus (also called Esotropia)
  • Horizontal: Divergent Strabismus (also called Exotropia)
  • Vertical: Hypertropia (an eye looks upwards)
  • Vertical: Hypotropia (an eye looks downwards)
  • Eyes twisted clockwise or anticlockwise relative to each other: Cyclotropia.

More about Ophthalmology:

This section includes short definitions of many diseases, disorders, and conditions of the eyes and visual system.
For definitions of other terms in this category, choose from the list to the left (but note that this is not a complete/exhaustive list).

Other related pages include

For further information see also our pages of books about ophthalmology.

The following books may also be of interest:

The Aging Eye (Harvard Medical School)
MCQ Companion to the Eye (Textbook)
The Secret of Perfect Vision: How You Can Prevent and Reverse Nearsightedness
What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About(TM) Glaucoma: The Essential Treatments and Advances That Could Save Your Sight

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