Definition: A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or tissue outside of the body cavity inside which it is normally located.

The most common type of hernia is the hiatus hernia, in which the stomach passes, partly or completely, into the chest cavity through the hole ("hernia") for the oesophagus, which is also known colloquially as the "windpipe" or "gullet".

Medical complications
of hernias may include:

  • Cannot return the tissues of the hernia to their usual state (irreducible).
  • Tissues of the hernia become swollen and fixed within their sac (incarcerated).
  • Hernia becomes cut-off from blood supply, becoming painful and eventually gangrenous (strangulated).

The usual medical treatment for hernias , especially painful ones, is surgical repair.

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