The expressions listed in this category could also be described as:
- actions at joints
- actions of muscles, or
- muscle actions
For a single list of all the movements of the body included in this section see types of movements at joints.
Supination is a movement that can occur (in different ways) at the lower-arm and wrist and also the foot/ankle. The action of supination can be described for each case:
- supination of the forearm = rotation of the forearm turning the palm of the hand outwards so that it faces away from the body , i.e. turning the palm superiorly (= upwards) or anteriorly (= forwards).
Supination of the forearm is the opposite of pronation of the forearm).
Some textbooks define supination only in terms of rotation of the forearm.
- supination of the foot is an excessive outward rolling motion of the foot and ankle when walking or running.
Some sports enthusiasts, especially running coaches and footwear suppliers, concentrate on supination of the foot / ankle when defining and describing supination.
See the video clips below for demonstrations of these supination movements and further below for comparison with related words such as inversion, eversion and pronation.
It is useful to know other words related to 'supination', including:
- supinator - a muscle that can act to cause a supination movement, e.g. to turn the palm of a hand superiorly or anteriorly is called an supinator.
- supinate (verb) - For example, the supinator muscle in the lower-arm supinates the hand and wrist.
Examples of Supination:
- Supination of the forearm:
This video sequence begins by describing the supinator muscle located in the upper (elbow) region of the lower-arm. Then it demonstrates the action of the supinator muscle to supinate the forearm :
- Supination of the foot:
Supination (vs. Pronation) of the foot / ankle is usually discussed in the context of running or at least of walking.
The following video clip is quite long but worth watching all the way through if you would like to understand supination of the foot.
Similar and opposite words:
See also list of definitions of muscle terminology (words used to convey information about specific muscles) - useful for studying human anatomy and physiology, sports sciences e.g. physical education (PE), physiotherapy, and other health sciences.
About this section:
- actions at joints,
- actions of muscles or
- muscle actions.
For a single list summarizing all the movements of the body included in this section see
types of movements at joints.
See also definitions of muscle terminology (words used to convey information about specific muscles) - useful for studying human anatomy and physiology, sports sciences e.g. physical education (PE), physiotherapy, and other health sciences.
- Anterior Muscles
- Posterior Muscles
- Facial Muscles
- Muscle Terminology (Definitions)
- 1. Structure of Muscle
- 2. Structure of Muscle Cells
- 3. Muscle Filaments
- 4. Sliding Filament Theory
- 5. Neuromuscular Junction
- 6. Actions at Neuromuscular Junction
- Types of Muscle Contractions
- Muscular Disorders
- Effects of exercise on muscles