The expressions listed in this category could also be described as:
- actions at joints
- actions of muscles, or
- muscle actions
For a single list of all the movements of the body included in this section see types of movements at joints.
Pronation is a movement that can be performed by the lower-arm / wrist and also by the ankle / foot. The action of pronation can be described for each:
- pronation of the forearm = rotation of the forearm turning the palm of the hand inwards towards the body , i.e. turning the palm inferiorly or posteriorly (the opposite of supination of the forearm).
Note that pronation of the forearm does not involve rotation of the upper-arm from the shoulder joint - which is a different movement. That is, pronation of the forearm does not involve any movement of the upper-part of the arm (above the elbow) See the video clips about pronation of the forearm, below.
- pronation of the foot, also called foot pronation or simply pronation (when it is obvious that you are talking about the foot and ankle, e.g. when considering running techniques or footwear) is one of the normal movements made by the foot to absorb its impact onto the ground when walking or running.
Foot pronation occurs when the heel makes contact with the ground and the foot disperses the impact, stretching and flattening the arch as the foot rolls inward and supports the weight of the body (while the other foot moves forward through the air)
- see the video clip at the bottom of this page.
It is useful to know other words related to 'pronation', including:
- pronator - a muscle that can act to cause a pronation movement is called an pronator. An example of a pronator is the pronator teres muscle.
- to pronate (verb) - e.g. "Most people find it easy to pronate their left forearm."
Examples of Pronation:
- Pronation of the forearm:
This video sequence begins by describing the pronator teres muscle then (approx. 27 secs in) shows pronation of the forearm, which is an important action of the pronator teres muscle: Having seen the above explanation based on the skeleton and pronator teres muscle alone, it is much easier to recognise the following motion (as used in badminton) as pronation (followed by supination, then repeated many times).
- Foot Pronation:
Pronation of the foot / ankle is usually discussed in the context of running or at least of walking. However it is not just a topic about sports because excessive or insufficient pronation of the foot can affect the rest of the skeletal system, affecting posture and even causing pain.
The following video clip is quite long but worth watching all the way through if you would like to understand pronation of the foot.
Similar and opposite terms:
See also list of definitions of muscle terminology (words used to convey information about specific muscles) - useful for studying human anatomy and physiology, sports sciences e.g. physical education (PE), physiotherapy, and other health sciences.
About this section:
- actions at joints,
- actions of muscles or
- muscle actions.
For a single list summarizing all the movements of the body included in this section see
types of movements at joints.
See also definitions of muscle terminology (words used to convey information about specific muscles) - useful for studying human anatomy and physiology, sports sciences e.g. physical education (PE), physiotherapy, and other health sciences.
- Anterior Muscles
- Posterior Muscles
- Facial Muscles
- Muscle Terminology (Definitions)
- 1. Structure of Muscle
- 2. Structure of Muscle Cells
- 3. Muscle Filaments
- 4. Sliding Filament Theory
- 5. Neuromuscular Junction
- 6. Actions at Neuromuscular Junction
- Types of Muscle Contractions
- Muscular Disorders
- Effects of exercise on muscles