Compare mitosis with meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis are two types of cell division, both of which occur in humans.
- Cell division by mitosis occurs when somatic cells* divide.
- Cell division by meiosis only happens during the final stages of cell division during sexual reproduction
(in humans and other species that reproduce by sexual rather than asexual reproduction).
The similarity between mitosis and meiosis is that they are both types of cell division so the result of both of these processes is the production of at least one, often two, new cells.
Differences between mitosis and meiosis
* Somatic cells are any of the many different types of cells that form a living organism except:
- gametes (i.e. eggs in females and sperm in males; in both cases these are cells that fuse with another cell during the fertilization stage of sexual reproduction)
- germ cells (these are not present in plants; in animals germ cells are cells that eventually turn into gametes, including
gametocytes. Male gametocytes are spermatocytes, female gametocytes are oocytes.)
- undifferentiated stem cells (i.e. cells present in all multicellular organisms, incl. animals, plants, etc., that can divide via mitosis and undergo changes into a wide range of specific types of cells including e.g. germ cells, and can self-renew to produce more stem cells)
The above is technically detailed definition of somatic cells. For many introductory biology courses is is sufficient to know that meiosis occurs in the reproductive system and process of sexual reproduction while mitosis occurs in all the body's tissues e.g. muscle cells, nerve cells, skin cells, the cells of the digestive system, and so on.
These simple notes about mitosis vs meiosis are suitable for some introductory courses such as pre- GCSE Biology (UK).