Chemical Elements List : Symbols and Names

This is a chemical elements list in order of their atomic number and uses British English spellings for names and descriptions.

To see this information listed in a different order (alphabetically by Chemical Symbol or alphabetically by Name of Elements in the English language) use the links in this sentence or click the arrow indicating the column you would like to order data by.

Atomic Number Chemical Symbol Name of Chemical (in English) Atomic Weight (Mass Number)
1 H Hydrogen 1
Hydrogen is a colourless gas at room temperature.
It is highly flammable.
2 He Helium 4
Helium is a colourless odourless tasteless gas at room temperature.
3 Li Lithium 7
Lithium is a soft silver-white metal classified as an "alkali metal" element.
4 Be Beryllium 9
Beryllium is found naturally only combined with other elements e.g. in aquamarine, emerald and chrysoberyl. The free element beryllium is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight brittle "alkaline earth metal".
5 B Boron 11
Boron exists as amorphous boron (a brown powder) and crystalline boron (black, very hard and a poor conductor at room temperature).
6 C Carbon 12
Carbon exists as graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon.
7 N Nitrogen 14
Nitrogen is a colourless odorless tasteless and mostly inert gas at room temperature.
8 O Oxygen 16
Oxygen occurs as a highly reactive colourless odourless tasteless gas.
9 F Fluorine 19
Fluorine is a very reactive poisonous pale-yellowish brown gas.
10 Ne Neon 20
Neon is a colourless inert noble gas that glows reddish-orange in discharge tubes and neon lamps.
11 Na Sodium 23
Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive "alkali metal" element.
12 Mg Magnesium 24
Magnesium is found naturally only combined with other elements as it is highly reactive. The free metal burns with a distinctive brilliant white light.
13 Al Aluminium 27
Aluminium is found naturally only combined with other elements as it is highly reactive. It is a soft, durable, lightweight, ductile and malleable metal whose appearance ranges from silvery to dull gray. It is non-magnetic, non-sparking and insoluble in alcohol. The free metal burns with a distinctive brilliant white light.
14 Si Silicon 28
Silicon rarely occurs in free element form in nature. It is found in dusts, sands, and forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates.
15 P Phosphorus 31
Phosphorus occurs in phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus but - due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature.
16 S Sulphur 32
Sulphur is a bright yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals.
17 Cl Chlorine 35.5
Chlorine is a pale yellow-green, highly reactive, gas with a strong smell (of bleach) at room temperature.
18 Ar Argon 40
Argon is a colourless odourless and non-toxic gas at room temp and pressure. It is inert under most conditions so forms no confirmed stable compounds.
19 K Potassium 39
Potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water. It occurs in nature only as ionic salts, e.g. dissolved in seawater, and as part of minerals.
20 Ca Calcium 40
Calcium is a soft grey alkaline earth metal.
21 Sc Scandium 45
Scandium is a silvery-white metallic transition metal.
22 Ti Titanium 48
Titanium is a light (low-density) metal that is strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant and silver in colour.
23 V Vanadium 51
Vanadium is a soft, silvery gray, ductile transition metal.
24 Cr Chromium 52
Chromium is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard metal with a high melting point. It is odourless, tasteless, and malleable.
25 Mn Manganese 55
Manganese is a silvery-grey hard metal, very brittle and difficult to fuse but easy to oxidize. Manganese metal and its common ions are paramagnetic.
26 Fe Iron 56
Iron and iron alloys (steels) are the most common metals and ferromagnetic materials in everyday use.
27 Co Cobalt 59
Cobalt is a hard, lustrous, grey metal that occurs in metallic-lustered ores, e.g. cobaltite (CoAsS). Cobalt-based colours and pigments have been used for jewellry and paints for 1000s years.
28 Ni Nickel 59
Nickel is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge.
29 Cu Copper 64
Copper is a ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable. Freshly exposed copper surfaces are pinkish / peachy in colour.
30 Zn Zinc 65
Zinc is a bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic, hard, brittle, transition metal.
31 Ga Gallium 70
Gallium is a soft silvery-coloured brittle solid at low temperatures. It is a poor metal and does not occur in elemental form in nature, but as the gallium(III) salt in very small amounts in bauxite and zinc ores.
32 Ge Germanium 73
Germanium is a lustrous, hard, greyish-white metalloid that has five naturally occurring isotopes ranging in atomic mass number from 70 to 76. It is an important semiconductor material used in transistors, electronics,fiber-optic systems, infrared optics and solar cells.
33 As Arsenic 75
Arsenic is a poisonous metalloid that has many forms incl. a yellow (molecular non-metallic) and several black and grey forms.
34 Se Selenium 79
Selenium occurs in various forms, the most stable of which is a dense purplish-grey semiconductor. Non-conductive forms of selenium include a black glass-like allotrope and several red crystalline forms.
35 Br Bromine 80
Bromine is a halogen that is a brown liquid at room temperature. Its vapour is toxic and corrosive.
36 Kr Krypton 84
Krypton is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, noble gas that occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
37 Rb Rubidium 85.5
Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white "alkali metal" element.
38 Sr Strontium 88
Strontium is a grey, silvery metal that is softer than calcium and highly reactive with water. It occurs naturally only in compounds with other elements, such as in the minerals strontianite and celestite.
39 Y Yttrium 89
Yttrium is a silvery-metallic transition metal that is nearly always found combined with the lanthanoids in rare earth minerals - as a free element.
40 Zr Zirconium 91
Zirconium is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal. It is not found in nature as a free element but may be obtained from the mineral zircon.
41 Nb Niobium 93
Niobium is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite.
42 Mo Molybdenum 96
Molybdenum is a silvery metal that does not occur as the free metal in nature but may be extracted from certain minerals.
43 Tc Technetium 98
Technetium is a silvery grey, crystalline transition. It is the lowest atomic number element without any stable isotopes. Most of technetium is produced synthetically but minute amounts have been found in nature. Naturally occurring technetium occurs as a spontaneous fission product in uranium ore or by neutron capture in molybdenum ores.
44 Ru Ruthenium 101
Ruthenium is a rare transition metal that is inert to most other chemicals.
45 Rh Rhodium 103
Rhodium is a rare, silvery-white, hard, inert transition metal.
46 Pd Palladium 106
Palladium is a rare lustrous silvery-white transition metal. (It is relatively valuable due to its many industrial applications yet limited supply.)
47 Ag Silver 108
Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal. It is the element with the highest electrical conductivity and the metal of highest thermal conductivity.
48 Cd Cadmium 112
Cadmium is a soft bluish-white toxic metal.
49 In Indium 115
Indium is a rare and very soft, malleable post-transition metal. It is named for the indigo blue line in its spectrum that was the first indication of its existence as a new and unknown element (in metal ores).
50 Sn Tin 119
Tin is a malleable, ductile, and highly crystalline silvery-white metal of low-toxicity. It was used widely during the "Bronze Age" to form bronze, an alloy of tin and copper.
51 Sb Antimony 122
Antimony is a silvery lustrous grey metalloid that has two stable isotopes, one with 70 neutrons, the other with 72. It is found mainly as antimony sulfide, commonly known as stibnite.
52 Te Tellurium 128
Tellurium is a brittle, mildly toxic, silver-white metalloid.
53 I Iodine 127
Iodine is a halogen that is a bluish-black solid at room temperature and pressure. It may be seen apparently sublimating at standard temperatures into a violet-pink gas with an irritating smell.
54 Xe Xenon 131
Xenon is a colourless, odourless, heavy, noble gas that occurs in trace amounts in the Earth's atmosphere.
55 Cs Caesium 133
Caesium is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C. Although it has only mild chemical toxicity, the radioisotopes present are a risk in case of radiation leaks, hence caesium is considered hazardous.
56 Ba Barium 137
Barium is a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. The free element is not found in nature but in various minerals.
57 La Lanthanum 139
Lanthanum is a silver- white, malleable, ductile, soft metal found in some rare-earth minerals, usually in combination with cerium and other rare earth elements. It may be extracted from the minerals monazite and bastnäsite.
58 Ce Cerium 140
Cerium is a soft, silvery, ductile metal that is found in certain minerals, incl. monazite and bastnasite.
59 Pr Praseodymium 141
Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal. At low temperatures itis paramagnetic at any temperature above 1 Kelvin.
60 Nd Neodymium 144
Neodymium is a rare earth metal that has a bright, silvery metallic luster - but oxidizes quickly in air.
61 Pm Promethium 147
Promethium is a radioactive element, only trace amounts of which can be found in naturally occurring ores. Its longest lived isotope 145Pm is a soft beta emitter with a half-life of 17.7 years. Pure promethium can exist in two allotropic forms. Promethium salts luminesce in the dark with a pale blue or greenish glow, due to high radioactivity.
62 Sm Samarium 150
Samarium is a rare earth metal with a bright silver luster.
63 Eu Europium 152
Europium is a ductile metal that becomes a superconductor when simultaneously at both high pressure (80 GPa) and at low temperature (1.8 Kelvin). It is the most reactive rare earth elements.
64 Gd Gadolinium 157
Gadolinium is a silvery-white malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is strongly paramagnetic at room temperature, and has ferromagnetic properties below room temperature. It also has a magnetocaloric effect, i.e. its temperature increases when it enters a magnetic field and decreases when it leaves the magnetic field.
65 Tb Terbium 159
Terbium is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is not found as a free element in nature but is contained in many minerals.
66 Dy Dysprosium 162.5
Dysprosium is a rare earth metal with a bright silver luster. It is soft enough to be cut with a knife, and can be machined without sparking (when overheating is avoided). It has unusual yet important magnetic properties.
67 Ho Holmium 165
Holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metal that is stable in dry air at room temperature. It occurs in the minerals monazite and gadolinite. Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any element and therefore is used for the polepieces of the strongest static magnets. It is also used in nuclear control rods.
68 Er Erbium 167
Erbium is a silvery-white solid rare earth metal. It does not occur as the free metal in nature but may be extracted from certain minerals e.g. gadolinite.
69 Tm Thulium 169
Thulium is a soft, malleable, ductile metal with silvery luster (when pure). It is ferromagnetic below 32 K, antiferromagnetic between 32 and 56 K and paramagnetic above 56 K.
70 Yb Ytterbium 173
Ytterbium is a soft, malleable, ductile rare earth metal with a bright silvery luster. It has 3 allotropes (called alpha, beta and gamma) and is paramagnetic at temperatures above 1 K.
71 Lu Lutetium 175
Lutetium is a silvery white corrosion-resistant rare earths metal that has several radioactive isotopes e.g. 176Lu.
72 Hf Hafnium 178.5
Hafnium is a lustrous silvery-grey transition metal found in zirconium minerals.
73 Ta Tantalum 181
Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that occurs naturally in the mineral tantalite.
74 W Tungsten 184
Tungsten is a steel-grey metal that may seem brittle and difficult to work, but can be worked easily when pure. It has the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion of any pure metal.
75 Re Rhenium 186
Rhenium is a silvery-white metal that has one of the highest melting points of all elements (exceeded by W and C). It is one of the densest elements (exceeded by Pt, Ir and Os).
76 Os Osmium 190
Osmium is an extremely dense, blue-grey, hard, brittle, metal that remains lustrous even at high temperatures. It has 4th highest melting point of all elements and is considered to be the densest known element.
77 Ir Iridium 192
Iridium is a very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal, the second densest element and the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at high temperatures.
78 Pt Platinum 195
Platinum is a silvery-white, lustrous, ductile, and malleable metal. Its resistance to wear and tarnish results in its popularity for making fine jewelry.
79 Au Gold 197
Gold is the most malleable and ductile metal. It is unaffected by air, moisture and most corrosive reagents, hence its popularity for use in coins and jewelry and as a protective coating on other, more reactive, metals - though it is not chemically inert. Pure gold is odourless, tasteless very dense.
80 Hg Mercury 201
Mercury is a heavy silvery-white metal - the only metal that is liquid at room temperature and pressure. Compared to other metals, it is a poor conductor of heat, but a fair conductor of electricity.
81 Tl Thallium 204
Thallium is soft, malleable, grey poor metal. It may be perserved by storage under oil. Thallium is known for its high and nonselective toxicity.
82 Pb Lead 207
Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal that has a bluish-white colour after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull greyish color when exposed to air.
83 Bi Bismuth 209
Bismuth is a heavy and brittle poor metal that has a silvery white colour with a pink tinge (due to surface oxide). It is the most naturally diamagnetic of all metals, and only mercury has a lower thermal conductivity. It is generally considered to be the last naturally occurring stable, non-radioactive element on the periodic table, though it is slightly radioactive.
84 Po Polonium 210
Polonium is a rare and highly radioactive metalloid that occurs in uranium ores. It has 33 known isotopes (all radioactive) that have atomic masses ranging from 188 to 220.
85 At Astatine 210
Astatine is a highly radioactive halogen thought to be more metallic than iodine. Its most stable isotope has a half-life of around 8.3 hours. Astatine is the least reactive of the halogens (less reactive than iodine) and occurs naturally in three natural radioactive decay series but, due to its short half-life, is found only in tiny amounts.
86 Rn Radon 222
Radon is a radioactive, colourless, odourless, tasteless noble gas, occurring naturally as the decay product of radium. It is one of the densest substances that remains a gas under normal conditions and is considered to be a health hazard due to its radioactivity.
87 Fr Francium 223
Francium is an alkali metal and the most unstable of the naturally occurring elements. Its most stable isotope has a maximum half-life of only 22 minutes.
88 Ra Radium 226
Radium is pure white radioactive alkaline earth metal that occurs in trace amounts in uranium ores. On exposure to air it forms a black oxide.
89 Ac Actinium 227
Actinium is a silvery radioactive metal that glows (pale blue) in the dark due to radioactivity.
90 Th Thorium 232
Thorium is a naturally occurring, slightly radioactive metal.
91 Pa Protactinium 231
Protactinium is a radioactive metal that has a bright metallic luster that it retains for some time in contact with air. It is superconductive at temperatures below 1.4 Kelvin.
92 U Uranium 238
Uranium is a silvery-white radioactive metal that has 6 known isotopes It occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle.
93 Np Neptunium 237
Neptunium is a metal with a silvery appearance, that is chemically reactive and occurs in at least 3 allotropic forms: α-neptunium (orthorhombic), β-neptunium (above 280 °C, tetragonal), γ-neptunium (above 577 °C, cubic). Trace amounts of neptunium are found naturally as decay products from transmutation reactions in uranium ores.
94 Pu Plutonium 242
Plutonium is a silvery-white actinide metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating of oxide. It occurs in at least 6 allotropes. It is also a radioactive poison that accumulates in bone marrow, hence handling plutonium is highly dangerous.
95 Am Americium 243
Americium is a radioactive metal with a silvery and white luster. At room temperature it slowly tarnishes in dry air.
96 Cm Curium 247
Curium is a radioactive metal produced by bombarding plutonium with alpha particles (it does not occur naturally).
97 Bk Berkelium 247
Berkelium is a radioactive metal produced by bombarding americum with alpha particles.
98 Cf Californium 251
Californium is a radioactive metal produced by bombarding curium with alpha particles.
99 Es Einsteinium 254
Einsteinium is a highly radioactive element considered to be a metal but without any practical uses. It does not occur naturally in measureable quantities and is considered highly toxic.
100 Fm Fermium 253
Fermium is a highly radioactive element considered to be a metal and produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons. It is extremely rare and highly toxic.
101 Md Mendelevium 256
Mendelevium is a highly radioactive element usually synthesized by bombarding einsteinium with alpha particles. It has no known uses as only trace amounts have ever been produced.
102 No Nobelium 254
Nobelium was first announced in the late 1950s. Its physical appearance is unknown but it is thought likely to be silvery-white or grey and metallic. If sufficient amounts of nobelium were ever produced, it would pose a radiation hazard.
103 Lw Lawrencium 257
Lawrencium is so rare that its gross appearance (e.g. colour, form etc.) is unknown. It is thought likely to be a silvery-white or grey metal but if sufficient amounts of lawrencium were ever produced, it would pose a serious radiation hazard.
104 Rf Rutherfordium 261
Rutherfordium is a rare, synthetic, highly radioactive element.
105 Db Dubnium 262
Dubnium is a rare, synthetic, highly radioactive element.
106 Sg Seaborgium 266
Seaborgium is a rare, synthetic, highly radioactive element.
107 Bh Bohrium 264
Bohrium is a rare, synthetic, highly radioactive element.
108 Hs Hassium 277
Hassium is a rare, synthetic, highly radioactive element.
109 Mt Meitnerium 268
Meitnerium is a rare, synthetic, highly radioactive element.
110 Ds Darmstadtium 271
Darmstadtium is a rare, synthetic, highly radioactive element.
111 Rg Roentgenium 272
Roentgenium is a rare, synthetic, highly radioactive element.

See also pages about the Periodic Table.

Chemistry set for extra learning and study

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