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Elements, Mixtures and Compounds

The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements is also known as the Periodic Table of the Elements, and as (simply) the Periodic Table. It is a tabular presentation of the chemical elements, as shown below.

The Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleef (1834 - 1907) devised the modern Periodic Table of the elements in 1869 by arranging the elements known at that time in order of increasing atomic weight, while also leaving gaps for undiscovered elements. More information about the history of the periodic table will be added at a later date.

 

Period

Group
I

Group
II

                   

Group
III

Group
IV

Group
V

Group
VI

Group
VII

Group
0

1

Periodic Table Periodic Table        

1

H

1

        Periodic Table Periodic Table Periodic Table Periodic Table Periodic Table

2

He

4

2

3

Li

7

4

Be

9

                   

5

B

11

6

C

12

7

N

14

8

O

16

9

F

19

10

Ne

20

3

11

Na

23

12

Mg

24

                   

13

Al

27

14

Si

28

15

P

31

16

S

32

17

Cl

35.5

18

Ar

40

4

19

K

39

20

Ca

40

21

Sc

45

22

Ti

48

23

V

51

24

Cr

52

25

Mn

55

26

Fe

56

27

Co

59

28

Ni

59

29

Cu

64

30

Zn

65

31

Ga

70

32

Ge

73

33

As

75

34

Se

79

35

Br

80

36

Kr

84

5

37

Rb

85.5

38

Sr

88

39

Y

89

40

Zr

91

41

Nb

93

42

Mo

96

43

Tc

98

44

Ru

101

45

Rh

103

46

Pd

106

47

Ag

108

48

Cd

112

49

In

115

50

Sn

119

51

Sb

122

52

Te

128

53

I

127

54

Xe

131

6

55

Cs

133

56

Ba

137

57

La

139

72

Hf

178.5

73

Ta

181

74

W

184

75

Re

186

76

Os

190

77

Ir

192

78

Pt

195

79

Au

197

80

Hg

201

81

Tl

204

82

Pb

207

83

Bi

209

84

Po

210

85

At

210

86

Rn

222

7

87

Fr

223

88

Ra

226

89

Ac

227

104

Unq

.

105

Unp

.

106

Unh

.

107

Uns

.

108

Uno

.

109

Une

.

110

Unn

.

               
                                     
       

57

La

139

58

Ce

140

59

Pr

141

60

Nd

144

61

Pm

147

62

Sm

150

63

Eu

152

64

Gd

157

65

Tb

159

66

Dy

162.5

67

Ho

165

68

Er

167

69

Tm

169

70

Yb

173

71

Lu

175

       

89

Ac

227

90

Th

232

91

Pa

231

92

U

238

93

Np

237

94

Pu

242

95

Am

243

96

Cm

247

97

Bk

247

98

Cf

251

99

Es

254

100

Fm

253

101

Md

256

102

No

254

103

Lw

257

Download this version of the Periodic Table as a .jpg (image file).

There are many slightly different versions of the periodic table.
Reasons for the differences between versions include:

  • Scientific knowledge at the time of publication:
    More elements have been added to the periodic table as they have been discovered. More more information about known elements, e.g. their atomic number and atomic mass, has also become available over time.
  • Level of detail needed by users of different versions of the periodic table.
    For example, versions of the periodic table intended for younger students may not include all of the elements, some of which are very rare and some of which only exist for a very short length of time. Some simple versions of the periodic table include only the Atomic Number of each element, omitting the Atomic Mass (or "Mass Number").
  • Colour (or other) Coding of categories of elements:
    Some versions of the periodic table may appear to be more complicated because they include colours or shading to indicate categories of elements, many of which share similar properties in at least some respects - though there may also be trends within members of a category. There are two main types of categories of elements within the periodic table. They are called "Groups" and "Periods" and are explained later.
  • Labelling:
    Different versions of the periodic table may be presented and labelled in different ways. For example, some label blocks of elements according to the layers of electrons surrounding the atom of each element, hence you may see labels such as "s-block", "d-block", "p-block" and "f-block". This is explained later.

What do all versions of the Periodic Table have in common ?

  • Symbols of the Elements:
    Chemical elements are always referred to using the same symbols - irrespective of the language of the publication in which the periodic table (or any use of the symbols) appears. However, many Periodic Tables used in schools, colleges, laboratories and other work-places also include the name of the element in the local language or (languages).
    The names of the chemical elements are not included in the periodic table shown above because this page is too narrow to fit them all in. See the List of Chemical Elements and their Symbols for information about chemical symbols and their corresponding names in English.
  • Numbers:
    Even simple versions of the periodic table include the atomic number of each element shown in the table.
    The atomic number of each element is a fixed value. These define the element and so do not vary between sources such as textbooks, websites, or expert opinion. For example, the atomic number of Nitrogen is always 7.
    The atomic mass (or "mass number") of each element is also the same on different versions of the periodic table. However, it is not quite as "fixed" a value as the atomic number because some elements also exist in (less common) forms that have a higher than usual atomic mass, though those forms tend to be less stable. This is explained further in the section about radioactivity.
  • Layout:
    Although the level of detail of labelling many vary (as mentioned above), the overall layout of the Periodic Table is a key aspect of it and remains the same across different publications, posters etc.. This is because the layout in terms of the main rows and columns and the numbers of rows and columns of the Periodic Table is it itself an important summary of how the elements in the table relate to each other and hence of similarities and trends in their structures and (physical and chemical) properties. This is explained further by information about the Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table.

 

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Periodic Table